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Within the prompting procedures described in the previous section, different types of prompts are used in a variety of ways to help learners with ASD acquire target skills. For example, with least-to-most prompting, one team member might use gestural, model, and physical prompts. Another team member might use only physical prompts when implementing graduated guidance. Prompt types include the following:
The various prompt types that can be used with all prompting procedures are described below.
Gestural prompt table
Target Stimulus (Antecedent)
The target stimulus is the “thing” or “situation” to which we want the learner to respond by performing the target skill.
A cue or task direction/question tells learners the skills or behaviors they should be using. For example, a team member might give a learner a picture card to go wash hands, saying, “Time to wash your hands.” The target stimulus is the dirty hands; the cue or task direction is the picture and verbal command. When using prompting procedures, the cue should be consistent so that learners know exactly when they are supposed to do something. The target stimulus also is important because it helps learners recognize that they should be using a particular skill even when team members are not present and providing a cue or task direction.
Learner Response (Target Skill)
Learner response is essentially the target skill team members want the learner to acquire. Learners are more likely to use the target skill accurately when the cue and target stimulus are clear and consistent. However, learner responses and use of target skills are not always successful. Therefore, learner responses are classified as either correct or incorrect.
The reinforcement and feedback provided after a learner’s response are critical for teaching the target skill. When learners use skills successfully or respond accurately, feedback should be highly positive and descriptive so that learners know exactly what they did that was correct. Positive feedback (i.e., reinforcement) increases the likelihood that the target skill will be used correctly in the future. With prompting procedures, correct responding should be reinforced even when it is prompted. Feedback for incorrect responding (i.e., incorrect use of target skill) is delivered either by ignoring the incorrect response or by applying a correction procedure. The latter type of feedback generally consists of either interrupting learners when they begin to respond incorrectly or repeating or stopping the trial.
A variety of prompting procedures support the learning and development of children and youth with ASD. They include (a) least-to-most prompting, (b) graduated guidance, and (c) simultaneous prompting. An overview of each of these procedures is provided in the following section.