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Frequently Asked Questions about Prompting
 

Question 1: What is the difference between a prompting procedure and a prompt type?   >>


Question 2:  How do I know which prompting procedure to use with a learner with ASD?  >>


Question 3:  Which prompt types are the least intensive? Which prompt types are most intensive?  >>


Question 4: How do I know when to start fading the use of prompts?  >>


Question 5:  How do I prevent learners with ASD from becoming dependent upon prompts to use the target skill?   >>


1. What is the difference between a prompting procedure and a prompt type?

    Prompting procedures include (a) least-to-most prompting, (b) graduated guidance, and (c) simultaneous prompting. This module contains step-by-step instructions for each procedure so that team members can use them with correctly. Prompt types, on the other hand, are the specific strategies used within each prompting procedure to teach new skills. Prompt types include gestural, verbal, visual, model, and physical prompts.

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2. How do I know which type of prompting procedure to use with a learner with ASD?

Each of the prompting procedures can be used to teach specific skills, and certain prompting procedures may be more appropriate for certain types of learners than others. For example, least-to-most prompting is most effective with learners who are using a skill, but not consistently. Least-to-most prompting also is helpful when learners are regressing with previously acquired skills. Simultaneous prompting, on the other hand, is useful when teaching new target skills, which can be either discrete or chained. Finally, graduated guidance can only be used when teaching chained skills.

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3. Which prompt types are the least intensive? Which prompt types are most intensive?

In general, visual, verbal, and gestural prompts are less intensive than modeling. Physical prompting is the most intensive prompt type.

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4. How do I know when to start fading the use of prompts?

With prompting procedures, monitoring learners’ progress is the way to make decisions about when to fade the use of prompts. For example, with least-to-most prompting, team members monitor learners’ unprompted and prompted correct responses to determine if the percentage of unprompted correct responses is increasing over time. As this happens, team members fade the use of prompts, by revising the prompting hierarchy to include less intensive prompts and by increasing the response interval between the cue/task direction and the delivery of a prompt. With graduated guidance, team members fade prompts in two ways. First, they immediately withdraw the use of a prompt within the context of an ongoing activity when a learner with ASD begins using the target skill. They also fade the use of prompts when learners’ independent use of the target skill increases and when their prompted responses decrease. When using simultaneous prompting, team members make decisions about fading prompts by evaluating both instructional and probe data. When learners with ASD use the target skill correctly 100% of the time during teaching sessions and 75% of the time during probe sessions, team members fade prompts by increasing the response interval during the probe sessions and by decreasing the intensity of the controlling prompt during instructional activities.

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5. How do I prevent learners with ASD from becoming dependent upon prompts to use the target skill?

Sometimes, when prompting procedures are not used correctly, learners become dependent upon a teacher’s prompting to use the target skill. To prevent this from happening, team members should (a) use the least intensive prompt needed by the learner to use the target skill successfully and (b) fade prompts as quickly as possible. The appropriate intensity of a prompt can be determined by observing a learner using a skill that is similar to the target skill and the kinds of help he needs to complete this skill. Team members can also prevent prompt dependence by fading the use of prompts as soon as learners become more proficient at using target skills.

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